soc 2 controls

SOC 2 Controls Explained for SaaS Startups

Merton Notrem

Compliance Success Manager


Understanding the SOC 2 Controls List and the Role it Plays in a SOC 2 Audit

At first glance, becoming SOC 2 compliant can feel like navigating a complex maze. Sure, you’re aware of the necessity of ensuring that your organization protects customers’ data security, but in an ever-changing digital world, the security standards that organizations should adhere to are strict and non-negotiable. Clients are less likely to trust an organization that does not comply with a leading security standard like SOC 2. 

In this article, we’re looking at what SOC 2 controls are, and the role they play in becoming SOC 2 compliant. But first, let’s do a quick refresher on some of the key terms that are used throughout the blog. 


SOC 2 is a reporting framework that can be considered the security blueprint for service organizations. Developed by the AICPA, especially for service organizations, this reporting framework allows SaaS companies to verify that they meet what is considered peak-quality data security standards. 

SOC 2 Controls

Your controls are the intentional tools and processes you’ve implemented into your organization to fulfill a specific security purpose. Let’s say you’re feeling somewhat tired and you’ve decided that you need to do something about it. The purpose is to re-energize yourself, the control may be to grab a cup of coffee. Alternatively, a control may be taking your daily vitamins, grabbing an energy drink, or perhaps catching up on some sleep. The same principle applies to SOC 2 controls.

In other words, SOC 2 is the overall security framework. SOC 2 controls are the measures, practices and processes taken to meet the organization’s SOC 2 objectives. 

Security controls have become increasingly important for B2B SaaS companies, and if SOC 2 is part of your security compliance, implementing the necessary SOC 2 controls that apply to your organization is the essence of the SOC 2 compliance framework.

Having the necessary SOC 2 controls correctly implemented and operating effectively in your SaaS startup, you can ensure a robust security environment for your customers and compliance with SOC 2. 

AICPA’s Trust Services Criteria

SOC 2 is guided by a list of five TSCs, Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, and Privacy. Determining which TSC needs to be covered is a crucial part of preparing for your SOC 2 audit. However, the beauty of SOC 2 lies in its flexibility. Out of the five TSCs, it is only compulsory that your organization complies with the first category – Security. As for the remaining TSCs, the intent of the flexibility of the SOC 2 framework is so that companies have the freedom to determine what criteria are beneficial and relevant to their customers that they plan to share the SOC 2 report with.

The Purpose of SOC 2 Controls

In summary, a SOC 2 control is the system or process that your organization implements in order to meet its SOC 2 compliance and information security objectives. The focus is on whether or not your organization fulfills  predetermined objectives of control design and effectiveness within your selected TSC criteria. That being said, the natural first step is to know what these requirements are and to subsequently start implementing controls that not only align with these said requirements but that work best for your specific organization. 

The Trusted Service Criteria (TSC) Requirements

There are five Trusted Service Criteria (TSC) that make up the backbone of SOC 2. To become SOC 2 compliant, your organization needs to meet these requirements. As already mentioned, you do not have to meet all five criteria. Rather, each organization determines which TSCs are relevant and desirable, and then designs SOC 2 controls to achieve those goals. However, the first criterion, Security, is obligatory in all cases.   

Within each TSC, there are specific multiple controls that can be tested. 

The Five TSC Requirements are: 


The only obligatory requirement refers to the measures taken to protect against unauthorized access, unauthorized disclosure, and damage to systems.

Among the key areas covered by SOC 2 security controls are:

  1. Data Security: Ensuring that data is protected against unauthorized access (both physical and logical) throughout its lifecycle.
  2. Infrastructure: Establishing and maintaining secure infrastructure to support the SaaS offering, including networks, servers, and databases.
  3. Change Management: Implementing processes to manage changes to the SaaS environment in a controlled and secure manner, minimizing risks of disruptions and security breaches.
  4. Incident Response: Having procedures in place to detect, respond to, and recover from security incidents effectively, thereby minimizing impact on customers.


Information and systems are available for operation and use.

Processing Integrity

System processing is complete, valid, accurate, timely, and authorized. 


Information designated as confidential is protected.


Personal information is collected, used, retained, disclosed, and disposed of appropriately.

To understand the full extent of SOC 2 and how to determine the scope of your SOC 2 audit, it’s important to understand the Trust Services Criteria and how they can assess the risk and opportunities associated with the information security of an organization.


SOC 2 Security Controls List: The Common Criteria Controls

As mentioned earlier, organizations are given full autonomy over which TSC they develop controls for as well as what those controls consist of. Perhaps confidentiality and availability are some of your organization’s core principles and operations. Your organization would prioritize developing all necessary controls for these TSCs. In short, your organization only implements the controls that are relevant to its operations, under the TSC included in your scope. However, the one TSC that isn’t optional, is Security. Security controls are essential and an obligatory requirement for all service organizations, which is why we’d like to focus on some controls to keep in mind when developing your controls list, relating to Security. 

Logical (Technical) and Physical Access Controls

This refers to the application of technical and physical safeguards. Its primary purpose is to protect information assets through security software, data encryption, infrastructures, or any other access control that best fits your organization. Within a SaaS company, the primary purpose of logical access controls is to authenticate and authorize access within computer information systems.

Authentication is a widely-accepted logical access control. However, as technology advances, it’s safe to assume that traditional password authentication doesn’t cut it anymore. With greater threats constantly developing within cybersecurity,  password authentication lacks a strong enough identity check.

With each passing year, authentication strategies are becoming more complex, and more advanced protocols and processes are preferred among service organizations. This allows greater certainty in the identity of those who access system resources. 

Examples of logical access controls: 

  • Network firewalls
  • Passwords with two-step verification
  • Intrusion detection systems
  • Data encryption

Examples of physical access controls: 

  • Perimeter security
  • Employee verification 
  • CCTV systems
  • Physical or electronic locks

Change Management Controls

The change management process is considered a part of the IT general controls in any service organization. It includes standardized processes that authorize, regulate and approve any and all changes made to data, software, or infrastructure. It also includes analyzing and confirming whether or not each change is meeting its predetermined objectives.

Examples of change management controls

  • Branch controls in code repositories
  • Human review & approval prior to pushing a change to production
  • Static/dynamic tests prior to release to production.

System Operation Controls

Can you accurately detect and identify new vulnerabilities? Is there any deviation or abnormalities, and do you have a system in place to detect and mitigate any and all risks associated? These controls refer to the consistent monitoring of any changes within the service organization that may lead to fresh vulnerabilities. 

Examples of System operation controls: 

  • Incident response protocols
  • Threat detection
  • Root cause analysis 

A popular and comprehensive outsourced program that is frequently used as a control for system operation is managed detection and response (MDR), which covers all of the above. 

In closing, it’s important to understand that although SOC 2 controls may not seem as straightforward to implement as one may wish, it is ultimately to benefit the security of the organization. However, that doesn’t mean that you’re left in the dark when it comes to implementing the right SOC 2 controls – not if we can help it. 

Significance of SOC 2 Compliance for SaaS Companies

For companies to prove they’re serious about protecting customer data and running a tight ship, SaaS companies especially often pursue SOC 2 compliance, offering several significant advantages:

  • Enhanced Trust and Credibility: SOC 2 compliance demonstrates to customers that the company takes data security seriously and has implemented appropriate controls to protect their information.
  • Competitive Edge: In a crowded market, SOC 2 compliance can serve as a differentiator, giving potential customers confidence in the security and reliability of the SaaS product.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Many industries and regulatory frameworks require SaaS providers to demonstrate adherence to specific security standards. SOC 2 compliance helps fulfill these requirements efficiently.
  • Operational Efficiency: Implementing SOC 2 controls often leads to improved operational processes and efficiencies, reducing the likelihood of disruptions and improving overall service delivery.

The Process of Achieving SOC 2 Compliance

Achieving SOC 2 compliance involves several steps, including:

  1. Assessment: Conducting an initial assessment of current controls and identifying gaps.
  2. Remediation: Addressing identified gaps by implementing necessary policies, procedures, and technologies.
  3. Audit: Engaging a qualified third-party auditor to assess the effectiveness of implemented controls against SOC 2 criteria.
  4. Reporting: Upon successful completion of the audit, receiving a SOC 2 report (either Type I or Type II) that details the scope, controls, and auditor’s opinion.

SOC 2 Compliance Software: Is There an Easier Way to Do SOC 2 Compliance? 

As you’re probably aware, there are no shortcuts or easy formulas you can copy and CTRL+V when it comes to SOC 2 compliance. However, when it comes to implementing the right controls, we’ve got you covered! Our SOC 2 superhero team develops a controls list customized to your organization and advises why it is best to include some and leave some out of your scope.

Manual compliance can be costly, tedious, time-consuming, and frequently contain human error. Some risks aren’t worth taking. With the right SOC 2 automation software and compliance experts on your side, you receive a facilitated risk assessment to tailored controls based on your company’s needs

At Scytale, we believe that with an intentional strategy, smart technology, professional input on what to avoid and where to put your focus, you can simplify SOC 2 and save hundreds of hours on your compliance. Take a look at just how we did this for our customers!

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